Research and publications

Neurofeedback brain training for Parkinson's

Bereitschaftspotential augmentation by neuro-feedback training in Parkinson’s disease

  • Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients could restore decreased early component of Bereitschaftspotential (BP) by means of neuro-feedback (NFB) to control negative slow cortical potentials (SCPs).


  • Studies demonstrate that decreased pre-movement cortical activity can be restored by endogenous, subject’s own effort, without externally driven modulatory stimuli or medication.

  • Good NFB performance of negative SCPs shifts (negativation) most likely increases excitatory field potentials of pyramidal cells in the supplementary motor area.

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Neurofeedback and physical balance in Parkinson's patients

  • Neurofeedback training is effective on the dynamic balance of Parkinson's patients.

  • Neurofeedback training can modify the static balance of Parkinson's patients.

  • Effect of neurofeedback on static and dynamic balances was similar.

  • PD patients could to enhance their beta1 and reduce selectively their theta activity.

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Neural Networks and Neurofeedback in Parkinson’s Disease

  • Thalamocortical circuits has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease.

  • Manipulating these abnormal activation patterns may therefore offer a novel avenue for treating this disabling condition.

  • A potential avenue for the modulation of specific neural activation patterns is neurofeedback. This noninvasive technique entails providing a continuous update of one’s neural activity so that volitional control of selected brain regions, networks, or rhythms can be learned.

  • This could be accompanied by specific therapeutic changes in behavior and clinical symptomatology in disease, according to the neural circuits that are modulated.

  • Most neurofeedback research has used electroencephalography (EEG) but recently neurovascular signals measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been targeted as well.

  • In this paper, we discuss the evidence implicating certain rhythms, particularly the beta (10–35 Hz) oscillation, in Parkinson’s disease. We also perform a systematic review evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of neurofeedback in Parkinson’s disease and make suggestions for future research.

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​Biofeedback for Movement Disorders (Dystonia with Parkinson's Disease): Theory and Preliminary Results

  • This paper presents a theoretical framework for using a combination of EEG biofeedback plus regular biofeedback with clients who have movement disorders.

  • Training was associated with significant reduction in dystonic movements. Additionally, the client became able to use diaphragmatic breathing to cue herself to turn on a mental state associated with increased SMR production and thus control incidents of freezing, a common problem in advanced Parkinsonapos;s disease. With twelve more sessions over the next 18 months, the improved quality of life has been maintained.

  • This work is reported to put forth a theoretical model of why neurofeedback plus biofeedback is helpful in movement disorders and to encourage research in this area.

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