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Research and publications

Effectiveness of EEG-Biofeedback on Attentiveness, Working Memory and Quantitative Electroencephalography on Reading Disorder.

Cognitive factors are the important correlates of reading disorder and their impairments are established in children with reading disorder. Neurofeedback as an intervention has been reported to be useful in improvement of cognitive deficits. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of this treatment on attentiveness and working memory and related electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in children with reading disorder.

In this single subject study, six children with reading disorder aged 8-10 years old completed twenty 30-minunt sessions of treatment. Continuous performance task, the digit span subscale of the 3(rd) edition of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and quantitative electroencephalography were used to evaluate the changes at pre and post-treatment. The data were evaluated by visual inspection of the graph, the mean percentage improvement and signal detection measures.

The results showed improvements in attention and working memory.

These significant changes in coherence are possible indications of the connectivity between frontal and posterior association and integration between sensory and motor areas that explain the improvements in attention and working memory.

The effectiveness of neurofeedback training on EEG coherence and neuropsychological functions in children with reading disability.

Neurofeedback training (NFT) is an effective intervention in regulating electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities leading to improvements in behavioral deficits, which exist in children with reading disabilities. This single-subject study explores our evaluation of the improvements in the reading ability and phonological awareness deficit, as well as the changes in the EEG in children with reading disabilities as a result of NFT. Participants were 6 children, aged between 8 and 10 years, who completed twenty 30-minute sessions of NFT and follow-up measurement sessions 2 months subsequent to the completion of the training sessions. The results showed significant improvement in reading and phonological awareness skills. Furthermore, EEG analysis did not show notable changes in the power of the targeted bands (delta, theta, and beta), rather there was normalization of coherence of the theta band at T3-T4, delta band at Cz-Fz, and beta band at Cz-Fz, Cz-Pz, and Cz-C4. These significant changes in coherence possibly indicate integration of sensory and motor areas that explains the improvements in reading skills and phonological awareness.

Improvements in spelling after QEEG-based neurofeedback in dyslexia: a randomized controlled treatment study.

Phonological theories of dyslexia assume a specific deficit in representation, storage and recall of phonemes. Various brain imaging techniques, including qEEG, point to the importance of a range of areas, predominantly the left hemispheric temporal areas. This study attempted to reduce reading and spelling deficits in children who are dyslexic by means of neurofeedback training based on neurophysiological differences between the participants and gender and age matched controls. Nineteen children were randomized into an experimental group receiving qEEG based neurofeedback (n = 10) and a control group (n = 9). Both groups also received remedial teaching. The experimental group improved considerably in spelling (Cohen's d = 3). No improvement was found in reading. An indepth study of the changes in the qEEG power and coherence protocols evidenced no fronto-central changes, which is in line with the absence of reading improvements. A significant increase of alpha coherence was found, which may be an indication that attentional processes account for the improvement in spelling. Consideration of subtypes of dyslexia may refine the results of future studies.

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